Species of Interest


Animal Disease/Food Safety

Laura Morrow
Laboratory Supervisor
(775) 353-3700

    Some of the links below are to forms and reports being made available as Adobe PDF files. Some of them may be interactive Adobe (pdf) file formats and can be downloaded as an electronic version to view on your computer, filled out and printed on your printer for mailing or faxing.  Those that are not interactive can be printed and filled out for mailing or faxing.

      Equine


      Equine Infectious Anemia

      Equine infectious Anemia (EIA) is a viral disease transmitted through blood contact in equine species, including horses, donkeys and mules, that can cause fever, weakness, swelling, irregular heartbeat and low red blood cell count. Common sources of transmission are blood-feeding insects such as flies, or with the reuse of infected needles and other contaminated medical, dental or tattoo equipment. It cannot be spread through coughs, sneezes or casual contact. It cannot be transmitted to humans and is not a public health risk.

      Horses suspected to be ill should be reported to their veterinarian for appropriate care. Infected horses may not show symptoms but remain carriers for life, making routine testing key to prevention of spread of this disease. This is a reportable disease, meaning when veterinarians diagnose it, they are required to notify the NDA, per NRS 571.160. The NDA website includes a list of reportable diseases.

      There is no known treatment for EIA. Infected horses are lifelong carriers of the virus and can potentially infect other horses. Routine testing is important to preventing the potential spread of disease. Management choices for EIA positive horses include either euthanasia or lifelong quarantine with permanent isolation that includes being at least 200 yards from any other horses.

      Prevention and control of EIA

      Horse owners are urged to practice good horse health safety measures to reduce chances of an infectious disease being transferred, and get as much background information as possible before purchasing horses. Basic practices include:

      • Single-use medical equipment such as needles, syringes, and IV lines should never be re-used, and should never be shared between different horses. Dental tools and other instruments should be fully sterilized between horses.
      • Practice good fly control by keeping stalls dry, removing standing water, managing manure, and using fly deterrents and repellants.
      • Horses should have a routine testing schedule for EIA and should be tested prior to attending events.
      • Test horses at the time of purchase examination. Work with a veterinarian on a quarantine and/or retesting protocol prior to introducing a new horse to current horses. Before purchasing, get as much background information on the horse including any domestic or international travel or importation.
      • Any horses entering the U.S. from other countries require testing and quarantine prior to entry.

      Equine species are required to have a Certificate of Veterinary Inspection and a negative EIA (Coggin’s) test within 12 months prior to entry as part of Nevada's entry requirements. Negative EIA tests are required for movement between all states and the U.S. Department of Agriculture lists EIA requirements for importation into the U.S.

      Detections

      As of Aug. 3, 2022, a detection of EIA was confirmed in a horse at a facility in Clark County during routine testing. A quarantine has been issued for the facility and all horses on the premises will undergo testing to prevent potential spread of the disease.

      Horses that attended an event in Washoe County within the month of June 2022 are also encouraged to test.

      View the Equine Infectious Anemia Quarantine FAQ for additional information. 

      Resources and helpful links

      Equine Herpes Virus (EHV)

      Avian


      Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

      Avian influenzais a disease caused by viruses that can infect poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, domestic ducks, geese, and guinea fowl) and wild birds. Avian influenza is further categorized based on the ability of the virus to produce disease in domestic poultry:

      • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strains are extremely infectious, often fatal to poultry, and can spread rapidly. HPAI can circulate freely in wild birds without sign of illness and infect domestic poultry causing severe and fatal illness. Some species of wild birds, such as raptors, also experience high mortality rates.
      • Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus strains occur naturally in wild migratory waterfowl and shorebirds without causing illness. LPAI can infect domestic poultry, creating little or no signs of illness.

       

      HPAI detections

      The current HPAI strain has been detected in both wild birds and commercial and backyard flocks in the U.S. As of April 21, 2022, HPAI has not been detected in Nevada, however detections have been made in neighboring states of Idaho and Utah.

       

      Any birds found to be sick should be immediately quarantined and reported to the USDA at (866) 536-7593 or the NDA by emailing NDA State Veterinarian at amitchell@agri.nv.gov.

       

      Three or more wild bird mortalities should be reported to the Nevada Department of Wildlife at (775) 688-1500 or nate.lahue@ndow.org.

       

      Biosecurity recommendations

      • Wash hands before and after coming in contact with birds.
      • Limit the number of people that come into contact with your flock to those necessary for their care.
      • Use personal protective equipment such as shoe covers, gloves, hair and clothing covers.
      • Clean and disinfect equipment before and after each use.
      • Do not share tools or supplies between flocks.
      • Flocks should be housed in enclosures that prevent any exposure to wild birds or waterfowl, such as barns or similar covered, secure areas.
      • Avoid attracting wild birds and waterfowl by securing feed and not using wild bird feeders on or near the premises.
      • Quarantine new birds or birds returning to the flock for 30 days before (re)introduction.
      • Quarantine sick birds immediately and report to the USDA at (866) 536-7593 or the NDA State Veterinarian atamitchell@agri.nv.gov.

      Read more about biosecurity practices to protect against HPAI at USDA Defend the Flock.

       

      Human health and safety

      According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these avian influenza detections do not present an immediate public health concern. As of April 21, 2022, no human cases of these avian influenza viruses have been detected in the U.S.

       

      Consumers are still encouraged to practice proper food safety handling, including washing hands before and after handling poultry or eggs, and cooking them to an internal temperature of 165 ˚F to kill bacteria and viruses.