Equine Infectious Anemia
Equine infectious Anemia (EIA) is a viral disease
transmitted through blood contact in equine species, including horses, donkeys
and mules, that can cause fever, weakness, swelling, irregular heartbeat and low
red blood cell count. Common sources of transmission are blood-feeding insects
such as flies, or with the reuse of infected needles and other contaminated
medical, dental or tattoo equipment. It cannot be spread through coughs,
sneezes or casual contact. It cannot be transmitted to humans and is not a public
Horses suspected to be ill should be reported to
their veterinarian for appropriate care. Infected horses may not show symptoms
but remain carriers for life, making routine testing key to prevention of
spread of this disease. This is a reportable disease, meaning when
veterinarians diagnose it, they are required to notify the NDA, per NRS 571.160.
The NDA website includes a list of reportable diseases.
There is no known treatment for EIA. Infected
horses are lifelong carriers of the virus and can potentially infect other
horses. Routine testing is important to preventing the potential spread of
disease. Management choices for EIA positive horses include either euthanasia
or lifelong quarantine with permanent isolation that includes being at least
200 yards from any other horses.
Prevention and control of EIA
Horse owners are urged to practice good horse
health safety measures to reduce chances of an infectious disease being
transferred, and get as much background information as possible before purchasing
horses. Basic practices include:
- Single-use medical equipment such as needles,
syringes, and IV lines should never be re-used, and should never be shared
between different horses. Dental tools and other instruments should be fully
sterilized between horses.
- Practice good fly control by keeping stalls dry,
removing standing water, managing manure, and using fly deterrents and
- Horses should have a routine testing schedule
for EIA and should be tested prior to attending events.
- Test horses at the time of purchase examination.
Work with a veterinarian on a quarantine and/or retesting protocol prior to
introducing a new horse to current horses. Before purchasing, get as much
background information on the horse including any domestic or international travel
- Any horses entering
the U.S. from other countries require testing and quarantine prior to entry.
Equine species are required to have a Certificate of
Veterinary Inspection and a negative EIA (Coggin’s) test within 12 months prior
to entry as part of Nevada's entry
requirements. Negative EIA tests are required for movement between all
states and the U.S. Department of Agriculture lists EIA
requirements for importation into the U.S.
As of Aug. 3, 2022, a detection of EIA was confirmed in a
horse at a facility in Clark County during routine testing. A quarantine has
been issued for the facility and all horses on the premises will undergo
testing to prevent potential spread of the disease.
Horses that attended an event in Washoe County within the
month of June 2022 are also encouraged to test.
View the Equine Infectious Anemia Quarantine FAQ for additional information.
Resources and helpful links
Equine Herpes Virus (EHV)